Primus Eta Oven System

3 litterのEta system の蓋をアルミにして、Outback Oven用のMSR パンハンドラー、温度計、ポットパーカを追加した。これでパンやホットケーキが焼けるし、熱効率が上がる。

I have changed the lid of 3 litters Eta system to the aluminum, and added the MSR pan handler, thermometer, and pot parka. Then, I can bake pancake and bread. It became more fuel efficient.

The system with pot parka

The handler of Primus and the lid are weak for heat. Therefore, I removed them.

All the parts are packed into one. The total weight is 1.2 kg including lighter, igniter and a pan handler.

3 litters Eta system with MSR pan handler, thermometer, and pot parka

The system without pot parka



The hiking in Wind River Range 2014 part 2

Phase 2


ペギーの車が来た。9:00ホテル出発、9:40 Boulder Lk.出発。名前の通り、岩山が多い。緩い単調な登りが続く。ハイカーは一人もいない。11:40ランチ。ゆっくりして出発、16:00 Ethel Lake テント設営。大きなトラウトが泳いでいた。人影なし。

Peggy's car came our hotel at 9:00. We arrived at Boulder Lk at 9:40. There are many rocky mountains as its name indicated. The monotonous easy ascent continued. We met no hiker. Lunch at 11:40.  We started slowly,  and pitched our tent at Ethel Lk. at 16:00. Several big trout were swimming. No one.


6:00起き、ホテルのマフィン、食パン、チーズ、マンゴーの朝食。千恵子が喉の痛みを訴える。風邪がうつったらしい。8:00出発、11:40 Lake Vera ランチ。Lake Susanとの間に巨大Boleteが山ほどある。幾つか採ると、とたんに重くなった。14:30 Lake Susanでテント設営。千恵子がBoleteをスライスし、天日干しにする。夕食には沢山のBoleteを炒めてパルメザンチーズを加えた。前菜だけでお腹がいっぱいになった。メインは少なめにした。

I woke up at 6:00. The breakfast was the leftover of the muffin and bread of the hotel,  cheese, and a mango. Chieko felt the pain of throat. She seemed to catch a cold. We started to hike at 8:00, took lunch at Lake Vera at 11:40.  We found lots of King Boletes between Lake Vera and Lake Susan. My wife took several Boletes, my backpack became heavy. I pitched our tent at Lake Susan at 14:30. My wife sliced and dried Bolete.  For dinner, I stir-fried much Bolete, and added Parmesan cheese. My stomach became full only with the appetizer. I lessened the main dish


6:00 起き、何時もの朝食、8:15出発、曇り。9:45 Full Moon Lake, 休憩、ココアを飲む。Ribz Frontのジッパーのストッパーが吹き飛ぶ。瞬間接着剤を使ったが、間違ってジッパーを固めてしまった。フロントはカラビナだけで接続して使うことにした。10:00 Junction Lake, キャンプ地として素晴らしい。12:35 Dream Lake ランチ、素晴らしい景色だが、トレイルが時々消える。Raid Lake までGPSを使って数キロクロスカントリーする。この二日、誰とも会わない。と、いきなり、フレームパックを担いだ女性と会った。遠くから日本人だろうと声をかけられた。ミゲルMigelという人で、20年ほど前に日本に一ヶ月滞在したことがあるという。お好み焼きが好物で、今も時々作っているという。フレームパックはボロボロで40年物。この近くでキャンプしているが、今日は一人でハイキングという。私はこの辺りの水をそのまま飲むが浄水器を持っているかと聞かれたので、すべて浄水して飲むと答えた。キャンプはCross Lake辺りと決めて進んだが、時々、雷がなる。手前に小さな湖があり、天気が怪しいのでテントを張る。すぐに雨になった。水を確保したが、ものすごく濁っていた。しばらくして動物の鳴き声、初めはコヨーテかと思ったが、鳴き声は羊。しばらくすると、近くの丘が羊で覆われた。100頭はいただろう。後で気づいたが、この辺りは羊の放牧地だった。天気は崩れたが、Boleteの前菜を含む豊かな夕食をとった。(この時からカメラの設定が狂い、まともな写真がない。カメラに慣れないMigelさんが変えてしまった可能性が強い)

I woke up at 6:00, the usual breakfast. We started to hike at 8:15 cloudy weather.  We took a short break and drunk cocoa at Full Moon Lake at 9:45. The stopper of the zipper of Ribz Front blew away. Since I used the quick-drying super glue bad way, I could not move the zipper. I decided to connect front packs only by the carabiner. We passed Junction Lake at 10:00, it was wonderful campsite.  We ate lunch at Dream Lake at 12:35. It was wonderful place, but the trail sometimes disappeared. I did cross-country for  several kilometers using GPS to Raid Lake. We met nobody for these two days. But I heard the woman who carried a frame pack calling me. She identified us as Japaneses from a distance. I spoke to her when we came near. Her name was  Migel. She said she had stayed in Japan for one month about 20 years ago. She loved Okonomi-yaki ( as-you-like-it Japanese pancake) and sometimes still making it. Her frame pack was tattered, 40 years old thing. She was camping near here, just did solo hike today. She asked me whether I had a water filter,  although she drunk the water of this neighborhood without filtering. I answered I always filtered all the water. We had decided to camp near Cross Lake, and we hiked further.  Thunder came. There was a small lake, and the weather turned badly.  I pitched our tent quickly.  It began to rain immediately. The water of the lake was extremely muddy.  We heard a coyote-like cry. but it was the cries of many sheeps.  After a while, the nearby hill was covered by the sheeps. Probably, 100 or more sheeps were. We knew later that this neighborhood was the grazing land of the sheep.  Although the weather changed badly,  we took the rich supper including the appetizer of Bolete. (A setup of a camera was out of order from this time, and there was a  possibility that Ms. Migel unfamiliar to a camera had changed the setting.).

6:00起き、何時もの朝食、8:00出発。Cross Lake に流れ込む川はSheep Creekというが、その意味がわかった。この辺り、Sheepだらけ。10:30 ツナサラダでブランチ。所々、トレースがなくなるトレイルだった。Fremont トレイル(CDT)に合流すると、トレイルは明瞭。高原状の峠からCirqueのとがった山々が明瞭に見えてきた。徒渉があり、岩も何もなし。ブーツのまま入り、ネオプレーンの靴下に履き替えた。15:00 Pyramid Lake Trailとのjunctionに到達。見覚えのある場所。テント設営。離れた所に釣りの家族もテントを張った。雨。夕食はBoleteの炒め物、野菜とスモークチキンのリゾット、仕上げにパルメザンチーズの細切れをのせると非常に美味しい。ジャガイモとツナのサラダも。

We wake up at 6:00 and took usual breakfast. We started to hike at 8:00. I knew the reason that the the river which flowed into Cross Lake was called Sheep Creek. At 10:30 we ate tuna salad. It might be a brunch. In some places, no trace existed.  Fremont trail was became clear near the junction of CDT. We could look the Cirque clearly from the high pass. There was a fording points, and no rocks. I walked into the river with boots and changed the wet socks to the neoprene socks. We reached the junction with Pyramid Lake Trail at 15:00. The familiar place. I pitched our tent. The family who were fishing also pitched the tent to the distant place. Rain. Dinner was very delicious when the powder of Parmesan cheese was put on the stir-fried dishes of Bolete, vegetables, smoked chicken, and rice. We also ate the tuna and potato salad.

6:00 起き、何時もの朝食。曇り。天気は下り坂。躊躇したが、一応、Hailey Passを目指すことにした。8:40 Skull Lk、曇りから雨になった。Hailey Passに近づくと、風が強くなり、Passの時には立っていられないほどになった。千恵子は飛ばされそうになり、座りこんでしのいだ。固定していなかったパックカバーは吹き飛ばされ、はるか彼方へ飛んでいった。逆方向から登ってきたハイカーは3名。彼らも必死だった。標高を100mくらい下げると一息つけた。川沿いに下るが、増水していた。昨年の記憶とGPSを頼りに下る。徒渉の後、雪になった。無理は禁物なので13:40 Grave Lakeの傍にテント設営。天気予報がわからない。inReachでOutdoor Shopに問い合わせた。この先、Lizard Head Trailを経てBig Sandy Lodgeに行きたいが、Lizard Head Trailは高原のトレイルで半日は吹きさらしになる。Big Sandy Lodgeに予約を入れているので、二日も停滞はできない。たっぷりの夕食をとり、明日の天気で判断することにした。

We wake up at 6:00 and took usual breakfast. Cloudy.  The weather was began to bad. I hesitated, but decided to go to Hailey Pass. It began to rain near Skull Lk. at 8:40. When we approached Hailey Pass, the wind became so strong that we cannot stand at the Pass. We were likely to be blown away. I sat down after the pass and waited Chieko. My pack cover  was blown away and flew to the very far place. I met three hikers who approached from the opposite direction. They were also struggling desperately. When we hike down around 100 meters, we felt safe. We went down on the riverside. The river was swollen.  I walked further according to the last summer's memory and GPS.  It began to snow after the fording. I pitched our tent near the Grave Lake side at 13:40. I did not know the weather forecast.  I asked Great Outdoor Shop by inReach. I wanted to go to Big Sandy Lodge through Lizard Head Trail, which was exposed to the wind for half a day. Since I made reservation of  Big Sandy Lodge, two days stagnation was impossible.  I took the big meal and decided to judge by tomorrow's weather.

夜の間、雨が続いた。風も強い。6:15に起きる。後にGreat Outdoor Shopから8/22と8/23は雨で8/24 は晴れという天気予報を受け取ったが、山だから数日天気は悪い、すなわち、24日か25日は雨か雪と考えた。それでWashakie Passから脱出することにした。9:30 footbridge休憩、晴れてきた。ただ、この晴れ間は一時的で、再び、雨になった。11:30 Ranger Park、再び、晴れた。ランチ。13:30 Washakie Lake、テント設営。14:00 雨になった。原則として明日Washakie Pass を越えることにした。近くでBoleteを収穫。夕食は何時ものようにたっぷり。Big Sandy LodgeのナターシャにinReach でメールを出し、予約の一日前が空いているかを訪ねた。

It was raining during the night. It was windy. I woke up at 6:15. I received an email from Great Outdoor Shop later,  who said  8/22 and 8/23 would be rainy but 8/24 be fine. But we were in a mountain range, the weather would be bad several day. I thought the 8/24 and 8/25 would be rainy or snowy.  Then, I decided to escape from Washakie Pass, because Chieko was weak for strong wind and coldness. We reached footbridge and rested at 9:30. It became clear.  However, this interval of clear weather was temporary, and it began to rain again. At 11:30, it stopped raining near Ranger Park. Lunch. At 13:30 Washakie Lake. I pitched our tent at 14:00 It began to rain. I decided to to beyond  Washakie Pass tomorrow. I picked up Bolete nearby. We ate plenty of food as dinner. I sent an email to Natasha of Big Sandy Lodge by inReach, and asked whether one-day before of reservation would be vacant.

6:15 曇り、何時もの朝食。しかし、強風なので出発を見合わせた。9:00 みぞれ、10:00 みぞれと風が止んだ。一時的かもしれないが、前進することにした。10:30 出発、 11:45 Macom Lake、休憩、Probarでエネルギー補給。雪が降ってきたし、Passは白くなっていたが、強風ではない。また、風向きも左からで、問題はなかった。トレイルは途切れがちだが、昨年歩いたのですべて記憶していた。峠の手前に雪の吹きだまりがあり、蹴り込んでステップを作りながら進んだ。13:10 Washakie Pass、峠は強風なので、すぐに下山した。しばらくすると、登ってくるハイカーが3名いた。聞くとアイダホからという。14:00 風の当たらない場所で休憩、ランチとした。Washakie Passの西側は傾斜が緩く歩きやすい。すぐに元のPyramid Lake Trailに合流、16:30 Marms Lakeの広い場所にテント設営、直後に雨となった。inReachでチェックすると、Lodgeは空いているという。夕食は何時ものリゾットとツナサラダとスープ。途中で採ったキノコはBoleteではなく、破棄した。

We woke up at 6:15.  Cloudy, usual breakfast. However, since it was too windy, we postponed the departure. At 9:00. But it stopped sleet and wind at 10:00. I decided to move forward at 10:30, although it might be temporary. We took a short rest at Macom Lake, and ate energy bar at 11:45.
Although it had snowed and Pass was covered by snow, wind was weak, and blew from the left side. The trail  tended to disappear. But I traced exactly , because  I had memorized the last summer's walking.  The small snowpack was before the peak. I went further making steps by kick-step technique. We reached Washakie Pass at 13:10. It was very windy. We hiked down immediately. After a while, we met three hikers who were ascending. They came from Idaho. We took a short rest and took lunch at the secure place at 14:00.  The west side of Washakie Pass was easy to walk. Immediately, we reached Pyramid Lake Trail. I pitched our tent near Marms Lk. at 16:30. After that, it became rain immediately. I checked the inReach. There was a response of Natasha. There was a vacant room.  We ate lots of food in dinner. But the mushroom taken on the way is not Bolete, and we discarded.

At the Big Sandy Lodge

6:15 起き、何時もの朝食。8:00 出発、曇り。13:00 Big Sandy Lodgeに到着。誰もいないので、外でコーヒーを入れていたら、ナターシャが帰ってきた。キャビンに入る。ベットは湿っていて、快適ではない。少し干したが、無理なので、一番上にスリーピングバッグを乗せて寝ることにした。暖かいシャワーを浴びる。キャビンの前にテントを立てて乾かした。夕食は18:30から、ビュッフェ形式。メインのチキンパイは物足りなかったが、グリーンピースの煮物、新鮮な野菜のサラダなど豊富で満足した。デザートのパイはストロベリー、ブルーベリーの2種類、また、イエローピーチのケーキもあった。たっぷり食べた。宿泊客は10人程度。キャビンには薪ストーブがあったが、太い薪しかなく、きれいに燃やすのは難しかった。

食事は7:30から、パンケーキ、オートミール、ベーコン、スクランブルエッグ、ブルーベリーマフィン、果物のミックス、コーヒー、オレンジジュース、甘いケーキと盛り沢山。ビッフェ形式だが、食べきれない。昼はランチパック。これはサンドイッチ、リンゴ、チーズクラッカー、ビスケットなど。暇だからMud Lake にボートを出して遊んだ。何処にも行かなかったので、ランチパックはロッジのラウンジで受け取った。昼過ぎ、Mud Lakeを眺めていると、MichelとJennyが現れた。Michelは到着早々、残り物のパイを頬張っていた。夕方に知り合ったのはDan(デン)という犬連れの太った若者。後で聞くと、彼はワイオミング出身で、猟もしていた。スタッフではSherylは日本語が少しできた。夕食はポークステーキ、マッシュドポテト、人参、インゲン、パン、クルミのパイ(Peacom Pie)。ポークステーキは一人一枚かと思ったら、みんなが食べた後、もう一度山盛り出てきた。二枚目をとったのは自分だけだった。

朝、雨が降ったが、天気が回復した。朝食はスポンジケーキにたっぷりのフルーツなど。朝食後、ランチパックを受け取り、半日ハイキングに出かけることにした。ダイヤモンドトレイルを辿り、V LakeとDiamond Lake を見学し、Big Sandy Trailに合流し、ロッジまで戻るコースである。ほとんど誰も歩いていないのに驚いた。V Lakeは広く、Temple Peakなどが見えて、゜景色の良い所だった。昼のサンドイッチをゆっくりと食べた。Diamond Lakeは小さいが、山が傍に見えてよい場所だった。Big Sandy Trailを歩けば2時間以内にBig Sandy Lakeに着くのだが、深追いは良くないので諦めた。下っていくと、Big Sandy Lake を目指すハイカーとすれ違う。みんな釣り竿を持っていた。かなり下り、平原状の場所に来ると、誰かが手を振っている。遠いので分からない。マイケルだという声がした。平らな場所に下りて彼と再会。彼の奥さんは昼寝か釣りをしているという。ここはムースの寝床だ、草の状態で分かるという。ロッジに戻ったのは三時頃で、かなりの距離を歩いてしまった。マイケルたちは五時過ぎに帰ってきた。六時過ぎのこと、マイケルやダンたちとラウンジで過ごしていた。突然、ダンが「ヒロ、ムースだ」という。Mud Lakeの向こう岸にムースが数匹現れた。ムースが三匹、悠々と歩いてマイケルたちのキャビンに近寄り、興味深そうに覗いていた。手持ちのカメラで一応撮影はしたが、遠すぎた。夕食はチキンフライ、オートミールコーン、野菜など、クルミのパイ(Peacon Pike)で締めくくった。チキンフライは一つ大きな物を取ると、もう食べられなかった。それでも山のようにチキンが残っていた。

Big Sandy Lodgeにお別れ。朝食をたっぷり食べた後、ラウンジで待っていると9時ちょうどにPeggyが来た。慌てることもないので、雑談してから出発。雨がひどかった。林道が一本、荒野を貫いている。パインデールで休憩。預けてあった荷物を受け取り、ゆっくりと出発。ジャクソンに着いたのは昼過ぎ。ペギーがチョコレートの美味しい店があるという。チョコレートやパンが非常に美味しかった。この後、ペギーに電話がかかってきた。落ち着かない様子。聞くと、預かっていた荷物の三脚を入れ忘れたという。取りに帰り明日届けるという。意味がよく分からなかった。ただ、古い三脚で一度も使ったことがないので。不要と言った。夕方、荷物を整理していてその理由がやっと分かった。Great Outdoor ShopのFredが出版した写真集とペギーの手紙が荷物の底にこっそりと隠されていた。Fredは別れる時もポーカーフェイスだった。あきれて内気で親切な人たちだった。我々はジャクソンに二泊したが、この町には何の魅力も感じなかった。興味のない土産物店ばかりだった。近くの中華料理店は値段が高く不味かった。遠くのスーパーまで買い物に行き、こっそりと料理したし、チョコレート店にももう一度行き、お土産を買うと共にパンとコーヒーを楽しんだ。ここは最高の店だった。値段はスターバックスと変わらないが、パンもコーヒーも美味しかった。


The hiking in Wind River Range 2014 part 1

The writing of blogs is delayed, due to the book I am writing. Therefore, I will upload the part 1.

The Winds へのアプローチは、成田からロサンゼルス、ロサンゼルスからジャクソンへ飛行機を利用した。サンタバーバラにTrailhackerとPiperがいるので、会うことにしたが、ロスの近くのサンタモニカと勘違いしていた。かれらは1-2時間、車を飛ばして会いにきてくれた。

We used the the airplane to Jackson from Los Angeles and to Los Angeles from Narita. Since Trailhacker and Piper live in Santa Barbara, I decided to meet them, but I confused Santa Barbara with Santa Monica near the Los Angeles. But, they came to us by a car driving for 1 to 2 hours.

時差調整のためロスに一泊し、次の日にジャクソンに飛んだ。ジャクソンでも一泊、その後、Great Outdoor Shopのシャトルでパインデールに移動し、やはり、3泊した。注文していたHileberg Anjan 3はホテルに到着していた。パインデールも高度が高く、高山病の症状が出て、風邪をひいてしまった。体調は最悪だった。シャトルの担当者ペギーはフレモント湖やハーフムーン湖の見学に連れて行ってくれた。その後、熱が出た。

We stayed overnight in Los Angeles to adjust the time zone, and flew to Jackson next day. We stayed one night stay and after that, we moved to Pinedale by the shuttle of Great Outdoor Shop. We spent three nights to adjust to the high elevation. I received Hileberg Anjan 3 at the hotel.  Since the altitude of Pinedale was high, I felt slight symptom of altitude sickness. I also caught a cold. My physical condition was the worst. The driver of the shuttle, Peggy gave us a ride to Fremont Lake and Half-Moon Lake. We enjoyed very much, but, I felt fever of a cold.

Phase 1

朝には熱は下がった。9:00 ペギーがホテルに来た。車でGreen Riverのトレイルヘッド、10:30到着。食料を持ちすぎて35kgはあったと思う。Clear Lakeへの寄り道はすぐにあきらめた。13:30 Upper Green Lakesの橋、休憩、15:00テント設営。食事は17:30。雷と雨、HillebergのAnjan 3 は素晴らしいテントで、風に強く、メッシュパネルなのに意外に暖かい。風邪をひいているので頭痛がひどい。

The fever went down at the morning. Peggy came to our hotel at 9:00. We arrived at the trail head of Green River Lake by the shuttle at 10:30.  I thought I carried too much food. My total backpack weight might be around 35 kg.  I  gave up immediately the round trip to Clear Lake.  We arrived the footbridge of Upper Green Lake at 13:30. We rested for a while. We pitched our tent at 15:00. We ate dinner at 17:30. Thunder and rain. Hilleberg Anjan 3 was a wonderful tent, which was strong to a wind, and although unexpectedly warm although its panels were mesh. It was cold, my headache became severe.


朝はぐずぐずして6:30に起きる。やっと頭痛が消えた。パン、クリームチーズ、マンゴー、コーヒーの朝食。8:10出発、ガスが少しずつ晴れてきたた。ハイライン・トレイルをたどる。徒渉あり、簡単だった。その場所で、Aspen Boleteを見つける。食用の巨大マッシュルーム。15:00 疲れたのでテント設営。荷物が重すぎた。

I wake up slowly at 6:30. My headache disappeared at last.  We ate usual breakfast: bread, cream cheese, rehydrated mango, coffee. We started to hike at 8:10, and the mist disappeared little by little. We  followed Highline Trail.  The river fording was easy. We found Aspen Bolete ( An edible huge mushroom) at the river.  I pitched the tent at 15:00, since I got tired. The backpack was too heavy.


何時もの朝食。8:00 出発。10:30、Trail Park手前に徒渉あり、岩がつるつるだった。綺麗な花が多い。Green Passは非常に広い高原状だった。Summit Lakeの向こう岸に馬で来たハイカーたちがいた。標高の高い場所で寝るのは避けたいので、先に進む。Elbow Creekを越え、先に進んだ場所に名のない小さな池があった。蚊と景色の関係で、その手前にテント設営。16:00。左目が充血、結膜炎になったらしい。やむなく抗生物質を一錠飲んだ。今回は身体のトラブルが多い。

The usual breakfast. We started to hike at 8:00. We arrive a fording place before Trail Park at 10:30. The rocks were smooth. There are many beautiful flowers. Green Pass was a very wide plateau. Several hikers were at the opposite side of Summit Lake. They came with horses. We hiked further, since the sleeping in the high altitude should be avoided. We forded Elbow Creek and found a small unnamed pond. I considered both the mosquitoes and the scenery, then I  decided to pitch our tent before the pond at 16:00. My left eye got congestion. I drank an antibiotic tablet.  My body had many troubles this time.


何時もの朝食、8:50出発。ただ、左目は一錠でかなり回復した。9:15 Pass Lake. 抗生物質のため、異常に疲れる。12:00 Elbow Lakeで昼食。少しずつ登る。傾斜は緩いのだが、力が出ない。15:00 Upper Jean Lake でテント設営。今日が一番つらかった。夜は熱が出た。

The usual breakfast. We started to hike at 8:50. . However, my left eye recovered considerably by 1 dose. Pass Lake at 9:15. I got tired unusually because of the antibiotic tablet.  We are at Elbow Lake at 12:00. We took lunch. I walked further little by little. Although the slop was gentle, my power does not come out.  I pitched our tent  at Upper Jean Lake at 15:00. It was a toughest day for me. The fever broke at  night.


6:00 に起きる。何時もの朝食。左目は目やにが出るが、ほぼ回復した。8:20 出発。11:30 Fremont Crossing ちゃんと橋があった。アメリカのハイカーと話す。昼食。体調が最悪のため、14:00 湖の傍にテント設営。Indian Pass への寄り道は無理なのであきらめた。夕方から咳と熱が出てしまった。Elkhart Parkに下りた方がよいかもしれない。inReachでGreat Outdoor Shopに予定より遅れていることを連絡した。

We woke up at 6:00, the usual breakfast.  Although the discharge from the left eye came out, the eye recovered mostly.  We started to hike at 8:20. Fremont Crossing at 12:00. There was a perfect bridge. I talked with an American hiker for a while. We ate lunch. Since my condition was  the worst, I pitched our tent near a lake at 14:00. I gave up to to to Indian Pass. A cough and fever broke at the evening. I think it may be better to bale out to Elkhart Park. I sent an email to Great Outdoor Shop by inReach that we were behind a schedule.


ゆっくりと寝て、何時もの朝食。熱は下がったが、予定のBoulder Campgroundに下りるより、Elkhart Parkに下りて、Pinedaleで休養日を多くとることにした。10:00 出発。Pole Creek Trailをたどる。11:50 Seneca Lakeで昼食。チーズは旨いが、パンが不味く感じる。痰と咳は止まる。15:00 Hobbs Lakeによいサイトを見つけたのでテント設営。遠くにFremont Peakなどが見える。玄米焼き米は、最初にスモークチキンや野菜と炒めて、後に水を少なめに加えて煮た。最後にチーズを細かく刻んで振りかける。これが一番旨かった。

I slept very long time, and ate usual breakfast. Although my fever disappeared,  I decided to bale out Elkhart Park, because I could take many zero days in Pinedale, in place of Boulder Campground. We started to hike at 10:00.  I followed Pole Creek Trail. We are Seneca Lake at 11:50, and took  lunch. I felt my bread was bad taste, but  cheese was nice. Phlegm and cough stopped . Since I found the good tent site at Hobbs Lake 15:00, I pitched our tent. We could see Fremont Peak etc. in the distance.  I fried instant whole rice with  smoked chicken and dry vegetables first, next , added small amount of water, boiled it, waited for a while. Finally, I put minced cheese on the cooked rice. This was the best.


6:00 起きる。ガス、8:00出発。Barbara Lakeに大きなBoleteがあった。キャンプしている人もいたが、Hobbs Lakeで正解だった。森の中で景色が悪い。Photographers Pointを期待して歩いたが、森の間からFremont Peakなどが小さく見えるだけだった。Elkhart からヒッチハイクも考えたが、inReachでGreat Outdoor Shopに連絡し、シャトルに来て貰うことにした。13時過ぎには到着すると考えたので、14:30にピックアップしてくれとメール連絡した。13:30 少し遅れてElkhart Parkに着いた。待ち合わせのRanger Stationを探そうとしたら、「Great Outdoor Shop」という大きな声がした。レックさんは少し前に来たという。Ranger Stationは何処かと聞くと、そこだ。閉鎖されているという。車は多く駐車していたが、ハイカーの姿はなかった。夕方でないとヒッチハイクは難しいだろう。我々はまたたくまにPindaleに到着し、ホテルを探す手伝いもしてくれた。14:30 無事にBest Western Pinedale Innに3日の予約を入れ、チェックインした。夜には熱と咳が出た。

I woke up at 6:00, mist. We started to hike at 8:00. I found a large Bolete at Barbara Lake. Several people were camping. I thought Hobbs Lake was better than Barbara Lake, because it had  no good scenery. I expected the Photographers Point, and hiked forward. But we could seen only Fremont Peaks between the woods. I thought the possibility of hitchhiking from Elkhart, but I send email to  Great Outdoor Shop by inReach, and requested the shuttle. Since I thought we would arrive at past 13:00,  I wrote in an email to pick up at 14:30. We arrived at  Elkhart Park at 13:30.  When I  tried to look for Ranger Station of waiting place, I heard the loud voice "Great Outdoor Shop". Mr. Leck says that he had came beforehand. I asked him where the Ranger Station was, he said it was there and closed. Many cars, but no hiker. The hitchhiking might  be difficult except in the evening. We reached at Pindale soon, and Mr. Leck helped us to look for a hotel.  We made the reservation successfully to Best Western Pinedale Inn for 3 nights. Fever  and coughs came out at night.

Zero Days

三泊、パインデールでのんびりした。Great Outdoor Shopはどこかに行く時は声をかければどこでも無料だというが、小さな町で車の必要は感じなかった。スーパーマーケットまで1kmくらいしかなかった。Mountain Man Museumのチケットもくれたので歩いて見学に行った。いわゆるtrapperの生活がよくわかる展示だった。phase1 で食料をかなり残したので、メモを元に調整し、数キロ減らした。二人、九日分の食料。ホテルには秤がなく、軽量の秤を持参する必要性を感じた。

I felt very easy in Pinedale for 3 days. The stuff of Great Outdoor Shop spoke we could go  anywhere by the shuttle with no charge. But we did not feel the necessity for a car in such a small town. We enjoyed around 1 km walking to the supermarket.  The stuff gave us the tickets of Mountain Man Museum,  we walked to look at. The so-called life of trapper was exhibited very well. Since I left food considerably by phase1, I adjusted and reduced food several kilograms on the memo. It was the food for two persons and nine days. There is no scale in the hotel and I felt the necessity of bringing a lightweight scale.


Ribz Front Pack ( S size )

バックパックに取り付けた改造済みRibz Front Pack S size
The remodeled Ribz attached to the backpack

Winds River RangeのハイキングでRibz Front の左右を結合するジッパーが壊れた。修理すれば使えるが、購入せず、昔のシステムに戻してみようかと考えた。ところが、UPIからRibz Front Packの提供を受けた。(貰い物は面白くないので、二つめは自分で買った。自分でお金を出すと購入バイアスが、貰うと提供バイアスが起こる。いずれにせよ、人間の価値観は簡単に揺らぐので、バイアスフリーではない。)そこで、今度はSサイズにした。

The zipper of the Ribz was broken while I was hiking in the Winds River Range. It can be a fixable problem, but I thought the revival of the ancient camera system. But, I  was offered Ribz Front Pack from UPI ( Japanese import agency) I do not like to be offered. Therefore I had bought a second Ribz. When we buy something, we tended to be suffered money-spend bias, and when we are offered something, we tended to be suffered offered-bias. Summing up, we tend to be suffer cognitive bias. I selected S size this time. 

ジッパーは旧製品より一回り大きい頑丈な物に変更されていた。S sizeはPentaxの一眼レフがぎりぎり入る大きさだった。パッドを自作しないといけない。それに背負うと窮屈なので、バックパックに取り付けたい。パッドはテントマットから自作しようと思ったが、不要のプラティパスの保温バックがあったので裏返して少しほどいて縫い付けた。サイズはぎりぎりだが、一眼レフのストラップの取り付け方を工夫して、なんとか納めた。
The zipper is large and strong compared to my existing Ribz. I can put Pentax K-3 in the new Ribz.  But I must add thin pad and I do not like to wear this pack, I want to attach this on the main backpack. At first, I must make a pad from tent mat, but I found an unnecessary keeping-warm cover of Platypus. I turned over the cover and sewed it in the Ribz Front pack. The size was tight, but I changed the strap of DSLR camera. Then it may be OK.

信越トレイルで使ったが、少し低めに取り付けても脚に当たらないし、コンパクトだが必要十分な大きさであった。S sizeはなかなか便利だと思う。

I used this system in Shinnetsu Trail. It is compact but it has enough capacity. It did not contact to my leg, when I attached the Ribz in lower position. I think S size Ribz is very convenient and versatile.

Upper : Original Ribz Front S size, Lower : Remodeled Ribz L size

Upper : reversed cover of Platypus

 Pentax K-3 in the Ribz S size


A Brief Guide to the Wind River Range

概説 Overview

The Wind River Rangeは、Wyomingの西の山岳地帯で、ロッキー山脈の一部である。アメリカ大陸の分水嶺(Continental Divide)をなし、モンスーン気候的で、比較的雨が多い。山は雨や氷河によって花崗岩が削って形成されたので、特異な岩塔なども多い。北部にグリズリーが少数生息するが、他に、ブラックベア、エルクなど、多くの動物が生息する。湖も多いので、各種のトラウトが生息する。また、雨が多いので、Porciniなど、巨大な食用キノコも多い。コンティネンタル・ディバイド・トレイル(CDT)もあるので、CDTのスルーハイカーはこの地域を歩く。日本人のCDTハイカーは数少ないので、この地域はほとんど知られていない。Windsは国立公園ではないので、Permitが要らず、自由に入れる。また、釣りのPermitも安い。Shroomerは、High Sierra, North Cascade, Glacier, Wind River Rangeの4つがアメリカでベストの場所だと言った。その通りだと思う。

The Wind River Range is a part of the Rocky Mountains in western Wyoming. It is also a part of the Continental Divide in the U.S.A., and it has a feature of monsoon climate a little. That is, it is rainy as compared to other areas in the U.S.A. There are many unique granite towers since the granite was erased by rain or glaciers. A small number of grizzly bears live in northern Winds, otherwise, many animals, such as black bears, elks, et al. lives. Since there are also many lakes, various kinds of trout lives. Moreover, since it is rainy, there are also many huge edible funguses, such as Porcini. The CDT thru-hikers walk along this area, because the Continental Divide Trail passes through this area. Very few Japanese know this area since Japanese CDT hiker is very few. No permit needed since the Winds is not a national park. Moreover, the permit for fishing is also cheap. Shroomer said to me that the best places in the U.S.A. are High Sierra, North Cascade, Glacier, and the Wind River Range.  I agree with him.

アプローチ Approach

飛行機で、Jackson Holeにアクセスするのが速い。ただし、標高は2000メーターもあり、高所順応に時間がかかる。今年はロサンゼルスからジャクソンに飛んだが、2000メーターの標高差で、高山病の症状が少し出て、風邪をひいてしまった。ソルトレーク・シティ(標高1320m)のような高地で一泊した後、Jacksonに飛んだ方がよい。アメリカ人なら数日かけて車でアプローチする方が、高所順応や時差調整の点で有利だろう。

It is the fastest way to access Jackson Hole by airplane. However, the altitude of Jackson is around 2000 meters above sea level and requires time for adaptation to high altitude. We flew to Jackson from Los Angeles. The discrepancy of altitude is around 2000 meters. I felt slight symptoms of altitude sickness and has caught a cold.  I think that It is better to fly to Jackson, after staying overnight in a high place like Salt Lake City (altitude is 1320 meter). It will be more advantageous to approach by car using several days because the adaptation to high altitude or time zone will be automatically done.

移動手段 Transportation

  • タクシーはTeton Mountain Taxi がやや高額だが、時間に正確で、信頼できる。飛行場とジャクソンの間で予約して利用した。ただ、予約時にクレジットカード情報を要求し、それを無神経にメールで返信する。これだけはいただけない。
  • シャトルサービスは、Great Outdoor Shop が運営している。タクシーと比較すると、非常に経済的で、時間に正確である。我々は、ジャクソンからパインデール、パインデールからトレイルヘッドへの移動などで利用した。
  • ヒッチハイクは時間帯に気を付ければ空港でも可能だろう。トレイルヘッドへのアプローチにはやや難しいかもしれない。トレイルヘッドからパインデールへは、ハイカーが少ないので、やや時間がかかるだろう。
The ways of transportation may be a taxi, a shuttle, and hitchhike. 
  • Although Teton Mountain Taxi is slightly expensive. they were very punctual and I can trust them. I reserved their taxi between the airport and Jackson using the internet. They required credit card information at the time of reservation and replied to it by e-mail. I was very astonished. It is not admittable in security reason.
  • The shuttle service of Great Outdoor Shop is available. As compared with the taxi, it is very economical. We purchased the shuttle between Pinedale and Jackson and trailhead. We were very satisfied.
  • The success rate of hitchhiking depends on the time zone.  It may be possible at the airport. It may be slightly difficult for the approach to a trailhead. It will take time to get a ride from a trailhead to Pinedale, because of a few hikers.  


ハイキングの中心となる町である。Great Outdoor Shopはほとんど何でも揃う。スーパーマーケットとしてはRidley's Family Marketがあり、十分な品揃えである。モーテル関連も多い。我々は中心部から離れたBaymont Inn and Suites PinedaleとBest Western Pinedale Innに宿泊し、アメリカ的朝食を楽しんだ。Wind River Brewingは有名なレストランであるが、やや値段が高く、我々には塩辛すぎた。

Pinedale is a center of hiking. You can get almost anything needed in hiking at Great Outdoor Shop. There is a large supermarket named Ridley's Family Market, where you can get any food.  There are also many motels in a town.  We stayed at Baymont Inn and Suites Pinedale and Best Western Pinedale Inn,  which are both distant from the center of town, and enjoyed the American breakfast. Wind River Brewing was a famous restaurant, but we felt slightly expensive and too salty for us.

地図、解説書、GPS情報 Maps, books, GPS information

  • Hiking Map では、Northern Wind River RangeとSouthern Wind River Rangeがある。詳しくトレイルが載っているので必須だろう。
  • 解説書はWind River Trails Paperback by Finis Mitchell を読んだ。Trailの情報、Fishingの情報が豊富である。
  • GPS用地形図は、GPSFileDepot からNorthwest TopoとMy Trailsをダウンロードして利用した。Topoではトレイルの表示がないので、My Trailsと併用した。New High Line Trailには踏み跡がなく、石の標識のみという場所があり、重宝した。CDT以外のトレイルを歩くなら、GPSは持っていた方がよいだろう。
  • As for Hiking Maps, Northern Wind River Range and Southern Wind River Range are indispensable, since the trails are described in detail. 
  • The Wind River Trails Paperback by Finis Mitchell is a good book. There is abundant information on Trail and Fishing. 
  • I had downloaded and used Northwest Topo and My Trails from GPSFileDepot.  Since there were a few trails described at a topo map, I used the topo with My Trails. If you wanted to walk trails, which are not included in CDT, you should carry GPS. We happened to walked New High Line Trail, where there was no trace, there were only the signs of stones. 

Big Sandy Lodge

Wind River Rangeの南、ビッグ・サンディ・キャンプグラウンドに近い場所にある。静かなロッジである。一人で一泊140ドル、一人加わるごとに50ドル。キャビンの薪ストーブは燃やしづらく、燻されてしまうし、ベッドも冷たいので、我々はその上にスリーピング・バッグを広げて寝た。電灯はなく、オイルランプである。ただ、別棟には素晴らしいラウンジがあるし、暖かいシャワーもある。朝食と夕食はビュッフェ形式で、朝食、夕食とも毎日メニューが異なり、手作りの料理が出てくる。夕食には手作りのパイが2種類前後でる。誰もこの誘惑には勝てない。我々は三日泊まったが、体重が増加してしまった。三日以上の宿泊は非常に危険で、お勧め出来ない。なお、クレジット決済ができず、予約も現金を送らないといけない。我々はWestern Unionの送金システムを利用した。8月下旬なら空いているだろう。

Big Sandy Lodge is located near Big Sandy campground in the south of Wind River Range.  It is a very quiet place. The overnight stay for one person costs 140 dollars, and 50 dollars are needed when one person joins. The log cabin is warm, but it was difficult to burn the wood stove properly.
Many people smoked themselves. The bed was cold, therefore we used our sleeping bag on the beds. There is no electricity only an oil lantern. However, there is a wonderful lounge in another building and there is also warm showers and flush lavatories. The breakfast and dinner are in buffet style, and the menu differs every day. The meals are made at the lodge. Moreover, around two kinds of handmade pies appear in supper. No one cannot resist the temptation. we stayed for 3 nights, my body weight increased. I cannot recommend 3 days or more stay, because it is very very dangerous for your fitness. BTW, the credit card cannot be used, because of no electricity and internet. The reservation should be done by cash. We used the money moving system of Western Union in Japan. Probably, they may have vacant cabins in late August.

釣り fishing

ライセンスが必要である。価格は安い。NONRESIDENT DAILY FISHING LICENSE $14.00 per day

A fishing license is needed, but relatively cheap. for nonresident, a daily fishing license is 14 dollars, and an annual fishing license is 92 dollar. The cost maybe within the half, if you are a resident in Wyoming. 
The record is uploaded in the web. We could not go, but if you have an ability to do cross-country, it may be enjoyable.


Marmot Kompressor Plus 2014


Old model ( I sewed waist belt ) and New one

Marmot Kompressor Plus2014の大きな改良点は雨蓋のポケットのジッパーの方向だろう。横向きになったので、物を落としにくい。また、少し下部が小さくなったようだ。それでフィット感が優れている。ただ、改悪された所が一カ所ある。荷物のコンプレッションベルトの起点がバックパックの上方に移動され、上の方しか絞ることができない。

New one ( black 2014 model ) is a little narrow, horizontal zipper at the lid, added waist belt, different plastic parts, and small modifications.


I dislike the compression belts of new type, therefore I removed them and sewed V-shaped new compression belts.

横から見たところ。Side view of new compression belts.


I adhered the solid plastic foam pad to the original pad, because it was too soft.


梨状筋症候群 Priformis Muscle Syndrome


I could not run, since I was attacked by the pain at the muscles of the left buttock just before the landing. Therefore I searched the site which described the similar condition. It was piriformis syndrome.  I did not visit a hospital as usual, but I was convinced that my symptoms is piriformis syndrome. There were many Web site in Japan. Chiropractic laboratory may be contain a reliable content, but Chiropractic has few scientific evidence. I cannot trust such a site.


Therefore, I decided to consult some scientific papers. It is easy to acquire the recent scientific knowledge, since there is a database these days.  What is necessary is just to access a scientific database (PubMed is no charge), and to read a few of  systematic reviews. Specialist integrates statistically two or more reliable randomized comparative studies and criticizes and evaluates them in the systematic review.  Therefore, if I read some systematic reviews, I can obtain the most advanced knowledge of the specific field. I put "piriformis syndrome" in the search windows, and set the condition as systematic review and availability of whole sentence, I found 202 papers. Then, I read four of them. 


梨状筋症候群とは、大臀筋の内部にある梨状筋によって座骨神経が圧迫され、尻や脚に痛みがある症状群とされている。ただし、その診断基準は曖昧で、Miller, White, and Ross(2012) は次の5つの基準を提案している。
  1. 脚と尻の痛みが座ったり、階段を登ったり、脚を組むと悪化する。
  2. 触診で梨状筋領域の痛みと敏感さがあり、梨状筋を緊張させると痛みが増す。
  3. 電気生理学テストで、座骨神経に軸索の喪失がないこと。
  4. 現在の座骨神経痛を説明する他の異常(腫瘍、神経根障害など)がないこと。
  5. 画像診断を元に梨状筋に筋肉注射すると、痛みの軽減が60%以上みられること。

Diagnosis of Priformis Syndrome

The priformis syndrome may be defined as a neuromuscular disorder that is presumed to occur when the sciatic nerve is compressed or involved at the level of piriform muscle which is located in the inside of gluteus maxiums.  However, the diagnostic criteria is ambiguous.  Miller, White, and Ross (2012) proposed the following five criteria.
  1. Buttock and leg pain made worse with sitting, stair climbing and/or leg crossing.
  2. Pain and tenderness to palpation of the sciatic notch area(priformis muscle ) and pain with increased priformis muscle.
  3. No evidence of axonal loss to the sciatic nerve on  electrophysiological testing.
  4. No evidence of abnormal imaging or other entity that could explain the presenting features of sciatica.
  5. Reduction of  >60% of buttock and leg pain with diagnostic injection into the priformis muscle under radiographic imaging and EMG guidance
When there is no diagnostic equipment, the exact diagnosis is difficult. In my case, the condition of 1 and 2 are applicable. My buttock pain is limited in running, therefore, my syndrome is a very early stage. My priformis muscle is tight, and I feel pain in this muscle. When other organic injury do not exist, my pain must be the priformis syndrome.

A technique of stretching for priformis muscle syndrome.


ランダム化比較研究による治療研究はほとんどないが、Michel, Decavel, Toussirot, Tatu, Aleton, Monnier, Garbuio, and Parratte(2013). の治療研究があった。梨状筋症候群の患者は250名、統制群として30名の患者(神経の脊椎による圧迫)と正常者30名で、臨床的評価尺度を用いていた。治療期間は3カ月だが、梨状筋のエクササイズとストレッチ、および、薬物によるリハビリで、51%の患者の座骨神経痛が4週間で、臀部の痛みが7週間で消滅した。症状の消えなかった残りの患者には6週間後に梨状筋にボツリヌストキシンを注射した。一度の注射で回復したのは51名(42%)で、注射は5回まで行った。この治療で改善しなかったのは19名で、そのうち、15名が梨状筋の切断という手術を受け、12名で回復した。



There is almost no randomized control trial of the treatment, but Michel, Decavel, Toussirot, Tatu, Aleton, Monnier, Garbuio, and Parratte(2013) carried out a large-scale intervention study. 250 patients,  30 control patients with disco-radicular conflict, and 30 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The syndrome was measured by 12-points clinical scoring system.  After 3 months treatment using medication and rehabilitation, the sciatic pain was completely disappeared in
128 patients ( 51% ). The sciatic pain was disappeared after an average period of 4 weeks, and buttock pain was disappeared after an average period of 7 weeks. The remaining 122 (48.8%) patients were treated with OnaboutulinumtoxinA injection.  Only 19 patients were unresponsive to this treatment. Fifteen patents underwent surgery. Very good evaluation resulted in 12 cases.

In summary, almost all the case (93%) will be treated successfully with the rehabilitation of priformis muscle and  OnaboutulinumtoxinA.  Fundamentally, the prognosis of piriformis syndrome is good. The recovery may be observed in about one month. 


肥満を防ぐには To prevent obesity


Two obesity hypotheses

  • カロリー説。 摂取カロリーが消費カロリーを上回ると、超過分のカロリーが脂肪に置き換えるという仮説である。この場合、痩せるためには、消費カロリーを増やすか、摂取カロリーを減らすことが必要である。
  • ホルモン説(炭水化物説)。 炭水化物摂取によってインスリンが放出されて脂肪細胞が刺激されて脂肪の燃焼が妨げられる。インスリン濃度が上昇した状態が続くと体重が増える。したがって、痩せるためには炭水化物摂取制限をし、インスリン濃度の上昇を防ぐことが必要である。
There are two hypotheses concerning obesity
  • Calorie theory.  When an ingestion calorie exceeds a consumption calorie,  an exceeded calorie transposes to fat. In this case, in order to become thin, it is required to increase a consumption calorie or to reduce an ingestion calorie. 
  • Hormone theory (carbohydrate theory).  An insulin is emitted by carbohydrate ingestion, adipose cells are stimulated, and combustion of fat is barred. If the insulin concentration remains high level, body weight will increase. Therefore, it is required to carry out carbohydrate ingestion restrictions, in order to become thin, and to prevent the rise of insulin concentration. 

トーベス(2013, 日経サイエンス、2013年12月号) によれば、ホルモン説が注目を浴びているが、検証には成功していない。摂取カロリーを統制して、炭水化物の効果を調べる必要があるが、炭水化物1g 4 kcal, タンパク質1g 4 kcal, 脂質1g  9kcalは食物の形態や消化率を無視した値で、かなり統制が難しい。この辺りの統制不能の誤差が研究結果に混入していると思う。

According Taubes(2013, Nikkei Science, the December, 2013 issue) , the hormone theory is capturing the spotlight, but its verification is not succeeded. Although it is necessary to control an ingestion calorie and to investigate the effect of carbohydrate. The calorie value of each gram of  carbohydrate 4 kcal, protein 4 kcal, and lipid  9 kcal are the values which disregarded the form and digestive rate of food. Therefore the control of intake calorie is quite difficult.  I think that this kind of error is mixed in research findings.

いくつか、メタ分析を行ったレビューを読んでみた。ジョンスンら(2013) は砂糖の取り過ぎが肥満、メタボリック症候群、糖尿病を引き起こすという。ネズミの実験では果糖がインスリン抵抗性(インスリンの分泌があっても血糖値が下がらないこと)や血圧を上げるという。また、体重の増加とは関係なしに、メタボリック症候群が発展するらしい。彼らは人間で行われたいくつかのランダム化比較研究をレビューしている。それによると、糖分を投与されたグループは体重が増え、インシュリン抵抗性が大きくなった。また、糖分を含んだ飲み物とミルクや水などの飲み物を与えた比較研究では、統制群に比較して脂肪組織や体重が増えた。

I have read several systematic reviews which conducted meta analysis. Johnson et al(2013) maintained the sugar caused overweight, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose raises insulin resistance ( this means that if there is secretion of an insulin, the blood sugar level do not decrease) and blood pressure in rats. Moreover, seemingly, metabolic syndrome will develop without the relation to the increase in weight. They reviewed the randomized comparative studies in men. According to them, the intake of fructose increased body weight and insulin resistance level. Moreover, the subject receiving sugary soft drink gained more liver fat, cholesterol and weight as compared to the control group. 


On the other hand,  Kahn et al(2014) criticized that role of dietary sugar was emphasized too much. Surely, although the estimated intake of sugar is decreasing from 2000, the number of obesity persons are increasing.  According to this review, when sugar was added to the usual meal, weight increased, but when intake calorie was constant, weight did not change in many randomized controlled trials. Johnson et al.(2013) showed that sugar increased the uric acid in serum, but it had no effect on a wide variety of hepatic biomarkers. Kahn et al. asserted that sugar gave no influence on body weight when energy consumption was controlled by intake calorie.


I will cite a summary table of Kahn et al.(2014) on the putative effects of sugar. The body weight did not increase when sugar was changed to other isocaloric nutrients. And, there is no evidence that sugar caused diabetes. Of course, excessive intake calorie causes weight increase, and sugar provides unnecessary calorie.


Taubes(2013, Nikkei Science, the December, 2013 issue) was standing on  hormone theory, and he gave us an impression that this theory was proved in near future. But, I think it is not easy to prove this theory after reading several systematic reviews, because of the lack of evidence.


The long-term effect of intervention of obesity

肥満への介入研究をした論文のメタ分析をいくつか読んだ。特に長期的な効果が重要だろう。ヨハンソンら(2014) は、超低カロリーダイエット(800 kcal以下 /day)、低カロリーダイエット(1200kcal以下/day)を1~2カ月行い、抗肥満薬、食事の代替、高タンパク食、マクロ的栄養素、サプリメント、運動の、どの方法で維持するのが良いかを調べた。20の研究、計3017名の介入研究のメタ分析で、治療期間は半年から3年間である。
I have read several systematic reviews which carried out the meta analysis of intervention studies of obesity. Especially, the long-term effect must be important. Johansson, et al. (2014) evaluated the long-term effects of ant-obesity drugs, meal supplement, high-protein diet, dietary supplements, other diet, or exercise on weight loss maintenance after initial very low calorie diet (below 800 kcal / day) and a low-calorie-content diet (1200 kcal or less / day) term for one or two months. Their meta analysis included 20 randomized control trials, the total number of subjects were 3017.  The treatment periods were from half a year to three years.


The results of control group were drawn in gray straight lines, and that of experimental group were drawn in color straight lines. Dietary supplement had no effect compared to the control group. High-protein diet had significant difference in the five months follow-up period. The discrepancy was 1.5 kg.  And macronutrition ( low fat ) had significant difference with a control group. Its discrepancy was 1.2 kg. Exercise had no significant difference, which was  only a 0.8 kg difference.  Also after 20 months, anti-obesity drugs had significant prevention effects. The weight of anti-obesity group was lighter than a control group 3.5 kg. Moreover, meal replacement (it may be super-low calorie food) group was  lighter than a control group 3.9 kg, although there was a little rebound in 18 months. In sum, anti-obesity drug and meal replacement were the most effective.

一方、シュイングハックルら(2013) は、データベースから高タンパクダイエットに関するランダム化比較研究15を選び、心臓循環系、メタボの危険要因を検討した。研究期間は12カ月から24カ月であった。高タンパクダイエットは空腹時血糖値を除き、体重や腰回りなど、すべての危険因子に関して有意水準に達しなかった。肥満に対して、高タンパクダイエットを推奨するには時期尚早であるという。

On the other hand, Schwinghackl et al.(2013) chose the 15 randomized comparative studies about a high-protein diet from the database, and examined  cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. The intervention terms were from 12 to 24 months. The high-protein diet did not reached the significance level about the risk factors, such as weight and waist, except for the fasting blood sugar level. They asserted that it was premature for recommending  high-protein diet to obesity.


Provisional conclusion 


The article of Nikkei Science(2013, Nikkei Science, the December, 2013 issue) gave us an impression that the hormone theory seemed to be right, because the author was standing on  hormone theory.  However, when I read several systematic reviews which conducted meta analysis, I had an impression that there was much evidence of calorie theory, and the evidence of hormone theory was scarce. Moreover, the intervention studies of obesity tells us that the maintenance after reducing weight is quite difficult. That is, anti-obesity drug had significant effect but I am afraid that it may have much side effect. Regrettably, the exercise had no effect.
The diet permitted to eat meat without restriction while performing carbohydrate restrictions, had clear contradiction to calorie theory. This diet do not work well clearly. High-protein diet had no long-term effect to maintain the reduced weight, and it also burdens on the kidney, live etc, because much nitrogen oxide will be produced. There is also a risk factor of  kidney stones or gout. After all, It is not recommended to rely on a specific nutrient diet. The only method to maintain our body weight may be the way to reduce intake calorie as a whole.


電源システム再考 Reconsidering the electric system


I am planning to hike Wind River Range in Wyoming this summer. I will purchase a food drop service in the midst of hiking. Then, I can stay around 20 days in the wilderness.  Therefore, I am nervous about the electric system. There are many options, and it depends on the weather. This is my thought about it.


Goal Zero Nomad 7。これ以外にも様々な太陽電池パネルはあるが、とりあえず、トラブルはないし、最大7W出力と高能率で、USB出力(5V, 1.0A)と、シガーソケット出力(15V, 0.3A)がある。カラビナをつけたので、実測467gと重くなった。元は440gである。

Source of electricity

GoalZero Nomad 7. There are many various solar panels, but I do not know other panels. I have no experience of trouble with this panel. Therefore, I will use this panel The maximal output is 7 W. There are USB output(5V, 1.0A) and a cigar socket output(15V, 0.3A). I added the small carabiners, then total weight became 467 gram ( originally 440 gram).

The source of electricity: Nomad 7, 467 gram

2. 蓄電池 + ランタン

電気を蓄えるには、標準のGoalZero、cheero Power Plus 2という大容量リチウムイオン電池、WAKAWAのリチウムイオン電池を考えた。ランタンの代わりにLEDライトを考えた。
  • GoalZero 単三4本 電池込みの重量は162g。エネループを使うとして、電源容量は1,900mAh X 4 = 7,600mAh。容量は大きい。しかし、エネループの電圧が一つでも下がると、他の機器の充電が難しくなる。特にカメラのリチウム電池を充電する時にトラブルが発生する。
  • cheero Power Plus 2 安価で大容量のリチウム充電池。容量は10,400mAh。ランタンとして吊せるように金具をエポキシで貼り付けた。重量は302g。
  • WAKAWAKA 小さな太陽電池パネル付き、内蔵のリチウムイオン電池は公称2,200mAh。カメラのリチウム電池(1900mAh) を充電すると、残量はゼロになる。
  • LED ライト。USB Torchという製品で、1W, 48 lumens のライト。38g。
  • バッテリーを吊すためのケーブルを自作。7g。
Storage + Lantern 

In order to have stored electricity, I decided to use a lithium ion battery called cheero Power Plus 2, which has large capacity, as compared to standard GoalZero, or to the lithium ion battery of WAKAWA.  I purchased an additional LED light
  • GoalZero.  The weight including 4 AA batteries is 162g. Its capacity is 1,900mAh X 4 = 7,600mAh when 4 eneloops are used. Capacity is large. However, if the voltage of one of eneloop dropped, charging of other apparatus will become difficult. Especially, charging  the lithium battery of a camera is impossible.
  • cheero Power Plus 2  An economical large-capacity lithium ion battery. Its capacity is 10,400mAh. I adhered metal parts with epoxy so that it could hang as a lantern. Weight is 302g. 
  • WAKAWAKA  This was a product of combination of a solar panel,  lithium ion battery, and LED light.  The capacity is  2,200mAh. The residual quantity will become zero when a lithium battery (1900mAh) of a camera is charged by WAKAWAKA.
  • LED Light. This is called USB Torch. The light is  1W and 48 lumens. weight 38 gram. 
  • I made a hanging cable for a lithium ion battery.  7 gram. 

2. 電圧変換ケーブル

eBayで600円で購入した中国製のコンバーター。クレージードックに教えて貰った物。動作は問題なかった。剥き出しの回路はシューグーを分厚く塗って固めた。Nomad 7には15V出力があるので、カメラのリチウム電池を直結して充電はできるが、非常に遅い。そこで、試しにコンバーターを購入した。このケーブルを使えば任意のUSB出力を利用して、カメラやNexus7のリチウムイオン電池が数時間で充電可能である。

Voltage converter cable 

I purchased the converter cable made in China for 600 yen at eBay. I was taught by Crazy Doc. It works well. I thickly covered the circuit with Shoe Goo. Since Nomad 7 has 15V DC output, I connected it to the lithium battery charger of camera directly. It can charge the battery, but it is very slow. Therefore, I purchased this converter. When this cable is used with a lithium iron battery (USB output ), the batteries of camera and Nexus 7 can be charged in several hours. 

5.5 V (USB ) to 12 V DC converter cable, 23 gram


WAKAWAKAは少し黄色い光で、広がりがある。ランタンとしては理想的。最大120 lumens

Test as a lantern

The light of WAKAWAKA is tinged with yellow, and wide. The ideal light as a lantern. Maximal output is 120 lumens.


USB Torchは白い光で、広角に設定しても、少し広がりが小さい。明るさは48 lumensとWAKAWAKAの半分だが、WAKAWA を最大出力では使わないので、実質的には変わらない。

The light of USB Torch is white and a little narrow. The maximal output is 48 lumens, a half of WAKAWAKA. But there is no essential difference from WAKAWAKA, since I do not use WAKAWAKA  as a maximal output.

USB Torch

ランタンとして使うならWAKAWAがベストだが、リチウムイオン電池の容量が小さい。任意のリチウムイオン電池と組み合わせ可能なUSB Torchも健闘している。こんど、アメリカにはUSB Torchを持っていくことになりそうだ。

WAKAWAKA is the best when it is used as a lantern, but the capacity of lithium ion battery is small. Therefore, the USB Torch is not bad, when it is used with any lithium ion battery. I will bring the USB Torch to USA this summer.

5. エネロープ用チャージャー 


The charger for eneloop

When lithium ion batteries, such as cheero is used as a storage of  solar energy, the charger of AA batteries should have a USB input. This is a charge for eneloop. Its weight is 41 gram. AAA batteries can also be charged.

6. カメラ用バッテリーチャージャー


The charger for a lithium ion battery of camera

This is a cheep Pentax compatible charger, which costs around 1000 yen. This has 15 V DC cigar socket output. Therefore this is superior to the Pentax products.

Battery Charger for Camera,  72gram

7. 暫定的結論


Tentative conclusion

If I use cheero, I can charge a battery of  camera or AA or AAA battery in several hours. That is, reserve batteries are unnecessary, when they are charged at night.The batteries of radio and of the noise reduction earphone are AAA, and the batteries of GPS, headlamp, and inReach are AA. The emergency does not happen when the batteries run out suddenly, because all the batteries do not  run out simultaneously. However, if the battery of a camera is run out, I will lose a chance to take photos eternally. That is, a reserve battery of camera is the only necessity.

  • Goal Zero Nomad 7
  • cheero Power Plus 2
  • USB Torch
  • 5.5 V (USB ) to 12 V DC converter cable
  • エネロープ用チャージャー
  • カメラ用バッテリーチャージャー
  • 予備バッテリーはカメラ用のみ
関連機材としては、GPS、 inReach、ヘッドランプ、ノイズリダクション・イヤホン(ラジオは持っていかないが、航空機の中で使う)。予備乾電池は持たない。

A final electric system

  • Goal Zero Nomad 7
  • cheero Power Plus 2
  • USB Torch
  • 5.5V (USB) to 12 V DC converter cable
  • USB charger for eneloop
  • A reserve battery of camera. 

My electric devices are GPS, inReach, a head lamp, and a noise reduction earphone (I will leave the radio at home. I use earphone in an airplane).  I will not bring AA and AAA rechargeable batteries.


How to charge a lithium-ion battery of DSLR camera by solar panel.

実はPentax のK-3を買ってしまった。K-30は単三電池駆動で理想的だが、画質にもう一つ満足出来なかった。ミラーレスではOlympus E-M1, FUJIFILM X-T1 を検討したが、電子ファインダーが好きになれなかった。そこで、Pentax K-3にした。防塵・防滴で、ファインダーが良い。ただし、重い。問題はリチウムイオンバッテリーの充電だった。

At last, I have bought Pentax K-3. Although K-30 was ideal, because it can be driven by AA batteries, I did not satisfied with its image quality. I examined miller-less cameras; for example Olympus OMD E-M1 and FUJIFILM X-T1. But, I could not tolerate for an electronic finder. As a result, I selected Pentax K-3. Its finder is excellent and It is built as dust and water resistant. However, it is a little heavy. The major problem was the charge of the lithium-ion battery.

Pentax K-3 system

The recommended technique by the maker.

Nomad 13という大型のソーラーパネルとSherpa 50というリチウムイオン電池内蔵のリチャージャーを組み合わせる方法である。Nomad 7でも動作は可能である。ただ、Sherpa 50 は重さ500gram, 価格は24000円前後もする。重すぎると高価過ぎる。他の12V出力可能な安価なリチャージャーもあるが、重さは400gはある。ハイキング用途では、この組み合わせは除外せざるを得ない。

The recommended technique by the maker is the combination of Nomad 13 solar panel and Sherpa 50 the lithium-ion re-charger. Sherpa 50 works slow with Nomad 7. But the weight of Sherpa 50 is 500 gram, and the cost is around 24000 yen. It is too heavy and too expensive. There are several cheap re-charger which have 12 V output by other maker, but their weight may be around 400 gram. It is not recommended for hiking usage.

Direct connection to the 12V output by cigar socket

シガーソケット用充電器を太陽電池パネルNomad 7の12V出力に接続してテストした。充電器のランプは点灯しなかったが、シガーソケットのインディケーターは点灯した。電気は流れているはずと確信し、日光の直下に一日おくと、バッテリーのレベルが1/3上昇した。バッテリーのレベルを計る機材がないので、カメラのインジケーターである。つまり、晴天下に3日程度置いておけば満充電が可能らしい。

I connected with the 12V output of solar panel Nomad 7, and tested the charger from cigar socket. It hardly turn on the lamp of a charger. However, the indicator of cigar socket was turn on. Then I convinced that it was possible to charge. The level of the battery rose one step in one day, putting directly under the sunlight. I have no equipment which measures the level of a battery, I used the indicator of a camera. That is, seemingly, the full charge may be possible if it will be placed about three days under the sunlight.

Tested in my house 

What device be needed?

写真にすべての装置を示す。必要なのは、ソーラーパネルの12V出力をシガーソケット用ケーブル(Nomad 7に付属)とシガーソケット用の充電器。これは中国製の安価な物で、たったの1090円だった。100Vと12-24V DC電源に対応している。Pentaxの充電器はシガーソケット対応ではない。

All the devices are shown in a following photograph. Required one is a cable for cigar sockets connecting 12V output of a solar panel (It was attached to Nomad 7), and a charger for cigar sockets. The charger  was a cheap Chinese-product, its price was only 1090 yen.

Nomad 7 solar panel, the cable of cigar socket, and the cheap charger
 which enables to charge both by 12V DC and 100 V current 

To reduce the weight


To reduce the weight, the DC cigar socket cable which connect to the output of 12V and the  cigar cable of the charger should be removed. For that purpose, the female conversion plug of DC output may be needed. But, the female output plug of GoalZero was special, I could not find a suitable plug adapter. 

それで、ケーブルを思い切って切断して直結した。GoalZeroのケーブルの色も独自で、赤と白を繋がないといけなかった。シガーソケットとプラグとケーブルを取り除いたので、50 gram 軽くなり、嵩が減った。つまり、GoalZeroと充電器を直結するケーブルができた。

Therefore, I cut the cable and connected directory to the plug. The colors of inner cables were special, so I had to connect the white and the red cable. I removed the cigar socket and plug parts. They weighed around 50 gram and became compact. That is, I made the direct connection cable between GoalZero and the charger.

The right side parts are unnecessary.

The direct connection cable between GoalZero and the charger.

Another technique

12V直流電源を作るには、単三乾電池 10本用のバッテリー ケースを使えばよい。ニッケル水素充電池が1.2Vなので、直列で12Vとなる。ケースはたったの 980円だった。残念ながら、DCプラグの径が大きい。変換プラグだけで1000円程度するので、余計に買ったシガーソケット対応充電器のケーブルのプラグを取り付けた。この方法の利点は小さなソーラーパネルを利用して電池を充電しておけることである。単三電池は1本25グラム前後なので、10本で250グラム前後となる。この方法の利点は充電器のランプが正しく点灯することである。

In order to make 12 V DC power supply, it is the simplest way to use 10  AA battery case.  Since the voltage of re-chargeable AA battery is 1.2 V,  the voltage of 10 batteries which were connected serially becomes 12 V.  The battery case costed only 980 yen. Though regrettable, the DC plug is large. I changed to the small one using unnecessary cigar socket cable.  The strong point of this technique is that the batteries can be charged by small solar panel. The weight of AA battery is around 25 gram, therefore, 10 AA batteries weigh around 250 gram.  It also turn on the indicator of battery case rightly.

Stuff sack for the battery and charger

I made from an unnecessary small stuff sack.


The remodeling of Nemo Meta 2P --- warm version



手持ちのテントではRobens Herosが2.0 kgと500g重いが、結露が極端に少なく、自立式なので、それだけの価値があるように感じた。

Meta 2Pは2010 backpacker Editor's Choice 賞を受けている。その関係で注目していたが、アメリカのサイトで安売りがあったので、2011年9月に購入した。当時の購入額は、送料込みで、$328ドルである。当時の円換算で30,000円以下だったと思う。

Meta 2P have won the 2010 Backpacker Editor's Choice. Therefore, I was paying attention to this tent. There was a bargain sale at the site in the United States, then I purchased in September, 2011. The amount of money including a mailing cost of those days was $328 dollar. I think that it was 30,000 yen.

Meta 2Pの特徴
  1. テント素材は比較的しっかりしていて、20Dのナイロン、1500mm 防水、フロアは30D、5000mm防水である。
  2. フロアは135 X 245 cmで、一人当たり巾67.5 cm、高さ245cmなので、足元と頭上にはかなりのスペースが出来る。二人用テントとしては非常に広い。
  3. 設置は非常に簡単である。テントは6角形だが、基本は6方向にガイラインを引けば良い。手順は、側面4ヵ所にステイクを打ち、ガイラインを引っ張る、次に出入り口の2ヵ所にステイクを打ち、ガイラインを軽く引っ張り、トレッキング・ポールを入れて伸ばす。最後に側面2ヵ所のベンチレーターのステイクを打ち、ガイラインを引っ張る。
  4. ステイクの自由度を高める(岩をよける)には、ガイラインを少し長めにしておくとよいだろう。特にベンチレーターのガイラインは長い方がよい。
The feature of Meta 2P
  1. The tent material is relatively tough, The fly was constructed by nylon of 20D, 1500 mm waterproof and floor is by 30D and 5000 mm waterproof material. 
  2. The floor is 135 X 245 cm. Since 67.5 cm width and 245 cm height for one person, it is a very roomy tent. 
  3. The pitching is very easy. The form is a hexagon. Just pulling guy lines in the six directions. Then the pitching is done. The more refined procedure is: At first, you should push four states to four sides. Secondly, you should push two stakes at two places of entrances. Thirdly, you should put trekking poles in the vestibules, and lengthen them. Finally, you should put two additional stakes, and pull the guy lines. 
  4. It is recommended to make  guy lines somewhat long, for increasing the freedom of locations of stakes (to avoid rocks). The longer guy lines of a ventilator is good. 

However, I pitched this tent only once as a trial. I left untouched for a long time, and I did not use in a real situation. My wife often complains the coldness, therefore, the mesh panels of this tent are not desirable. I decided to give this tent away to FB friends, but no one wanted.  The mesh tent and non-free standing tent are disliked in Japan. For throwing away, it was unbearable and I put this tent on the shelf as a dead stock for a long time.

今年の夏、二人でワイオミングのWind River Rangeをハイキングする計画を立てている。ワイオミングはカリフォルニアのジョン・ミューア・トレイルと比較すると、雨が多い。昨年は初日に数時間の激しい雷雨にあった。日本より雨は少ないが、降る時には、かなり激しい雷雨が続く。ジョン・ミューア・トレイルではローベンスのStratosを2回使用した。4人用のピラミッド・テントなので、軽量で、快適だったが、雨が降ると、前室がまったくないので、かなり不自由である。そこで、不良在庫のMeta 2Pに目を付けた。居住空間は3人用に該当する広さだし、広い前室も2つある。ひどい雨の時くらい前室で調理したい。基本は良いテントなので、改良すればなんとかなると思った。

I am planning to hike Wind River Range of Wyoming with my wife this summer. Wyoming is rainy as compared with the John Muir Trail of California. I experienced the intense thunderstorm of several hours last summer on the first day. Although rain is less than Japan, but when it rains, it continues as intense thunderstorm for several hours. In the John Muir Trail, I used Stratos of Robens twice. Since it was a pyramid tent for four persons, it was lightweight and comfortable, but since there is no vestibule, when it rains, it is quite inconvenient. Then, I reminded the Meta 2P of the dead stock. This tent is very roomy, and its width corresponds for three persons tent, and also has two large vestibules. At least, I would like to cook when it came severe rainfalls at the vestibule. I think that it became better with the small modification, because it is a good tent fundamentally.


風の進入を防ぐためには、テントをなるべく低く張る必要がある。Meta 2Pはベンチレーション重視のためか、前室の壁と地面の間隔が高すぎると思う。テントが弛むので、低く張るには限界があるが、前室の2ヵ所のガイラインを写真のように2つ取り付けた。黄色のガイラインは、ノーマルに張るためで、ステイク位置の岩を避けるため、長さ調整は大きめにしてある。もう一つのループはテントが弛んでもよいから、なるべく低く張るためのガイラインである。設置する場合は、どちらか一つのガイラインを使う。前室をフルオープンにはしないので、そのためのガイラインは取り去った。

1. Pitch a tent low.

In order to prevent the penetration of a wind, it is necessary to pitch a tent as low as possible. I think that the interval of walls of the vestibules and the ground of Meta 2P is too high, considering the ventilation. Of course, there is a limit to pitch a tent low, since the tent will be  slackened. I attached two guy lines to the vestibules as like a photograph. The yellow guy lines are used to pitch a tent normally. I use long guy lines to avoid rocks near the stakes. The dark loop lines are used to pitch a tent as low as possible.  I use one kind of guy lines when pitching. There is no necessity to open vestibules fully, then the guy lines for it were removed.

ダブル・ガイライン double guy line

It was pitched low normally. When it was pitched as low as possible, it will be slackened. 



2. Sew an ultra-thin cloth on a mesh panel.

Probably, this may be the best way to make a warm tent.  I spent with Shroomer one month last summer.  I felt his sense and taste was similar to me, especially on food. I felt Shroomer as like my cousin of obliging character who had passed away.  However, he was quite different from me as for a point that he had firm subcutaneous layer. He could swim in an icy water. It was impossible for me. White persons adapted to the cold weather by developing subcutaneous layer. It is quite different from Japanese people.  It is the reason why American mesh tents are disliked in Japan. 

テント用の防水布地は必要ないので、検索して見つけたのが、極薄撥水ポリエステル生地。148 X 200 cmでたったの1500円だった。黒に近い深緑色で、雰囲気もよかった。

I searched and found an ultra-thin water-repellent polyester cloth, since the waterproof cloth for tents was unnecessary. The price was only 1500 yen in 148 X 200 cm. It was the dark green color near black, its atmosphere was also good. 


How to sew the cloth



Since it was a first time to sew a tent for me,  you should pay attention to the more professional sewer's technique.

I put the cloth under the mesh panel and carry out upbringing sewing. I should sew, after measuring and cutting out the cloth just like that. But, I thought it was too difficult for me. It is better to cut same shape as the mesh panel and do the upbringing sewing. I spent around one day only at this process. I also used stapler.


Cut roughly


I could not use sewing machine. My wife sewed.



I took upbringing thread, cut the margin by a scissors.  I melted  a little by a lighter and kept the fiber from being frayed.  I did not consider the high technique of inserting in and sewing.



5. Completion. There is a possibility which I have to make the upper half of a mesh into Velcro, and have to enable opening and closing of it if too hot.  But I will use as it is for a while.


改良版テント remodeled


inner view 貴重品入れ。


There is a new product, which requires two sets of trekking poles.  Since it cannot be used by single person, this specification is undesirable.