The preface of Hiking Handbook & PDF of Chapter 2


The personal experience is important in the hiking and the mountaineering world because the accumulation of experience is overwhelming. In addition, the writings of the well-known hiker and mountaineer are predominantly persuasive. This situation is the same in both Japan and U.S.A.


I accidentally participated in the PCT mailing list of U.S.A. What I felt in the PCT-L was that the attributive "It worked well for me" is needed for all the cases. The judgment is quite difficult whether its knowledge has generality or is limited to a specific individual.

  • 靴1ポンドの重さは背中の荷物5ポンドに相当する。
  • ブーツの足首のサポートは不十分で、ブーツを履いた人の方がシューズを履いた人よりケガが多い。
  • マメは摩擦熱で生じる。
  • マメを防ぐには、アルコールで足を毎日拭くと良い。
  • 荷物の重さを半分にすると、歩ける距離が飛躍的に伸びる。
  • 荷物が軽ければ軽いほど、安全である。
  • ケガを防ぐには、ハイキングの前に入念なストレッチを行うと良い。
The following list are widely supported ideas in the hiking and the mountaineering world.
  • One pound on the feet is equivalent to five pounds on the back.
  • The ankle support of boots is insufficient, therefore, the person wearing boots suffer more injuries than the shoe wearer.
  • The cause of blisters is the frictional heat.
  • It is recommended to wipe feet with alcohol every day to prevent blisters.
  • When the backpack weight was reduced to half,  the walkable distance increases drastically.
  • When the backpack becomes lighter, it becomes safer.
  • The elaborate stretch before hiking prevents injuries.
靴の重さの影響はコリン・フレッチャーが「遊歩大全」(Fletcher, C., & Rawlins, C.  2002  The complete walker IV. New York: Alfred A.Knopf. P.59)に記述し、その後、軽量シューズやブーツを販売する時のキャッチ・フレーズに使われた。靴の重さと消費エネルギーの関係は、スポーツ科学の専門家による実験研究があるので、二章や三章で詳しく書いておいた。

The effect of footwear weight was described by Colin Fletcher ( Fletcher, C., & Rawlins, C. 2002 The complete walker IV. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. P.59),  and afterward, it was used for a catchphrase by the sports shops when they sell lightweight shoes and boots. There are many experimental studies by experts of sports science. So, I described the relationship between footwear weight and energy consumption in chapter 2 and chapter 3.

ブーツには足首のサポート力が不十分でケガが多いという主張はウルトラライト・ハイカーのレイ・ジャーディーン(Jardine, R.  2001 Beyond backpacking. Arizona: AdventureLore Press. P.155)や世界的バックパッカーのクリス・タウンゼント( Townsent, C. 2011 The backpacker's handbook.  New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp.42-43. )に見られる。足首のサポート研究は、傷害防止の関係でスポーツ科学の分野に多く、エビデンス性の高いコクラン・ライブラリに大規模メタ分析の論文がある。また、シューズとブーツのケガに関しては、調査研究や前向きランダム化比較研究があり、二章と八章で解説しておいた。

The claim that the ankle support of boots is inadequate and the boots wearers are prone to suffer foot and leg injuries is proposed by the ultralight hiker Ray Jardine ( Jardine, R.   2001  Beyond backpacking. Arizona: AdventureLore Press. P.155)  and the world-famous backpacker Chris Townsend ( Townsent, C.   2011 The backpacker's handbook.  New York: McGraw-Hill, Pp.42-43.)  There are many scientific studies concerning the support function of footwear in sports science because it is an important topic for injury prevention. Fortunately, there are several large-scale meta-analyses in the Cochrane Library, which is regarded as the best database of the highest evidence level articles. In addition, there are many types of research and the prospective randomized comparative trials, concerning the injuries of shoes and boots. I have described those topics in chapter 2 and chapter 8.

マメが摩擦熱で生じるという記述はコリン・フレッチャー( Fletcher, C., & Rawlins, C.  2002  The complete walker IV. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. P.111 )にある。また、彼はアルコールで毎日足を拭くとマメが防止できると主張している。これは、多くの人が信じている内容である。マメについては、医学的・生理学的研究があり、そのメカニズムは解明されている。マメが生まれるメカニズムを理解すれば、絶対にマメを作らずにハイキングできるだろう。これは二章で解説しておいた。

The idea that the blisters are caused by the frictional heat is found in Colin Fletcher's Complete Walker ( Fletcher, C., & Rawlins, C. 2002 The complete walker IV. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. P.111). And he also maintained the blisters are prevented by wiping feet with alcohol every day. This may be believed by many people. There are many medical physiologic studies concerning blisters, and the mechanism of blister formation was elucidated. When you understand the mechanism of blisters, you can hike absolutely without making blisters. I described this topic in chapter 2.


Many people think that the walkable distance increases drastically when the backpack weight becomes half and that the best way to keep safe is reducing the pack weight. Reducing pack weight must be the most important topic. Then, how does the walkable distance increase?
I described this topic in chapter 2. When the pack weight is introduced to the latest dynamic model,  the clear relation between pack weight and walkable distance is deduced by a simple transformation of the equations. Concerning the relation between the pack weight and the injuries, there are several prospective randomized comparative trials. I described this topic in chapter 8.


Many people think that the elaborate stretch before hiking prevents injuries. Many members in the PCT-L also believe the effect of the stretch. The Japanese outdoor magazines often place special articles of the stretch. On this topic, there are many studies in sports science, and also several large-scale meta-analyses in the Cochrane Library. 


The book of the well-known hiker and mountaineer is surely persuasive. But, it is unpredictable that their opinion can be applicable to a common person, because, they have extraordinary strong legs and physical strength.  Furthermore,  they are not specialists concerning the background knowledge of hiking and mountaineering. It is an embarrassing point.


To tell the truth,  all the above-itemized contents are wrong.  I had searched the database called PubMed as much as possible,  and checked the validity in the journals, whenever various opinions appeared in the PCT-L, and I posted my opinion in poor English with the references. Some person supported my opinion, and others strongly objected my opinion. The PCT-L occasionally flame up, but an open argument is welcomed. This is the good point that we should follow.


It is not sufficient, but there is some accumulation of scientific studies about hiking and the mountaineering. There is conclusive evidence in the specific field. Therefore, when I read the reliable article of those fields, I can judge what is right and what is wrong.  Unfortunately,  a hiker and a mountaineer are not trained to read scientific journals. Thus, they know nothing about the recent development of scientific studies, and their judgments are frequently skewed by the confirmation bias, which was called in psychology.

PCTメーリングリストの管理人のブリック( Brick Robbins  2012  Water borne diseases. PCT-L, 07/06)は、「個人的・宗教的意見とサイエンスが一致しないので、みんな腹を立ててしまう」と書いた。私の書き込みを少し意識したのかもしれない。ただ、サイエンスは、最終的に多くの人にとって利益となる。それに、勝利を納めるのは、常にサイエンスの側であって、個人的経験の側ではない。

The manager of the PCT mailing list, Brick ( Brick Robbins  2012   Waterborne diseases. PCT-L, 07/06 ) wrote, "All sorts of people are offended by science that doesn't agree with their personal or religious views. " He might be conscious of some of my posts. But, many people finally profit from the knowledge of science.  In the long run, science always defeats personal experience.


I had no special interest in hiking and mountaineering. I just needed physical practices to recover from brain fatigue, because my job needs hard working of the brain. In other words, I need to keep the balance of body and soul. At first,  I performed a cycle touring intensively. Then next,  I began to learn hiking and mountaineering. I prefer horizontal travel to peak hunting. As I had been poor, I  I walked frequently the Noto Peninsula and the border mountains such as Mt. Sirakimine between Toyama and Gifu prefecture, because only a little money was needed. When I had more money, I hiked Hokkaido ( the north island ) in summer and Yakushima ( the southern island ) in spring.   I still hike Mt. Sogatake,  Mt. Hakuba, and Noto peninsula, because they are located in the vicinity of my house, easy to access, and need a little money. They are the best places when I need a change.


The opportunity of the writing of this book arose naturally, because I hiked the John Muir Trail 4 times,  participated in the mailing list of PCT, and thought about hiking. I did not like the U.S.A and did not want to board an airplane. I have a stay-at-home tendency. Mr. Hideaki Terasawa pushed my back gently. I must thank him. My ability to English conversation was very poor, and could not talk at all. But I was welcomed by Kevin, Joel, Crazy Doc, and others on the trail, and Jim at Vermilion Valley Resort. Shroomer, with whom I had discussed in the PCT-L, took care of me very much. The PCT hiker is a crazy people. They hike around 5 months absent from home. But, the crazy PCT hiker Shroomer called me crazy, because I carried around 30 kg with a calm face.  My record was around 50 percent of body weight ( 38 kg ) because I guided my wife John Muir Trail for 10 days without resupply. I hiked through without fatigue and exhaustion. This had been predicted by the latest walking model.


I should express the thankfulness to the unknown friends in the mailing list of PCT and Facebook. My ability to conversation and composition of English improved to some extent, accordingly, my impression of the U.S.A. changed to be a more favorite country, as like a home town. According to American custom, I should write a person's name more than one dozen, but I want to omit it here.  As a final word, I thank Mr. Yuu Morimitzu, the editor of Shinyosha Pub Co. He accepted my selfish plan and let me write freely. When I was young, I thought my life should be designed by myself, and the books should be too. However, the reality seems to be different. The life comes out of the various accidental heap, and the books also created by the various factors. The accidental heap is a kind of necessity. I hope that this book is useful for hikers and mountaineers.

出版社から許可が下りたので、第2章 歩く装置をPDFで全文公開します。出版は6月4日です。価格は、2600円+税

I would like to disclose the whole sentences of chapter 2 "Device of Walking" because the publisher gave me a permit. The date of publishing is June 6.

ここからダウンロード Download here 

第2章 歩く装置 Chapter 2 Walking Device

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